Wind turbines in tourism landscapes: Czech experience
Frantál, B., Kunc, J.: Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 499-519, 2011.
This study proposes to assess and empirically verify possible negative effects from the construction of wind turbines on the landscape image and tourism potential of affected areas, using the example of two comparative recreational localities in the Czech Republic: one with the construction of a wind farm planned and the other with an already existing farm. The empirical research consisted of two mutually linked parts: a questionnaire survey and focused, semi-structured interviews. Emphasis was placed on the subjective perception of the phenomenon by tourists and local business representatives from the sphere of tourism.
The analysis focuses also on the social-geographical factors that shape tourists attitudes to the wind energy development dilemma.
 
  Workshop Exploring New Landscapes of Energies - abstracts
Collection of Extended Abstracts of Papers from the 8th International Geographical Conference & Workshop
CONGEO ´2011
 
  Biogas stations as a tool for rural development in the Czech Republic
Martinát, S.: Association of American Geographers - Rural geography, Seattle 11.-18. 4. 2011
Venkovský prostor České republiky se v posledních 2 dekádách dynamicky mění. Jeho dříve téměř výhradní zaměření na produkci zemědělských komodit je v souladu se Společnou zemědělskou politikou EU (CAP) diverzifikováno ve prospěch alternativních činností, ať už zemědělských (ekologické zemědělství, pěstování alternativních plodin, energoproduktiví zemědělství atd.) či nezemědělských (služby pro obce, cestovní ruch, bioplynové stanice).
Příspěvek si klade za cíl shrnout problematiku bioplynových stanic v České republice, legislativu, historický vývoj, vývoj dotačních možností, strategií ať už na evropské, národní či regionální úrovni. Zvláštní pozornost je věnována specifikům lokalizace jednotlivých typů bioplynových stranic ve venkovském prostoru.
 
  Energy Landscapes: innovation, development and internalization of research
Frantál, B., Cetkovský, S., Martinát, S.: Association of American Geographers, Seattle 11.-18. 4. 2011
Energy landscape is term originally used in biophysics that has recently got a new meaning in the scope of landscape ecology and geography. Energy landscape can be defined as a landscape whose inage and functions have been significantly affected by the energy industry, particulary by the renewable energy development.
 
  Energy Landscapes: innovation, development and internalization of research
Frantál, B., Martinát, S., Dvořák, P.: Průmyslová krajina 22. 3. 2011
Energy landscape is term originally used in biophysics that has recently got a new meaning in the scope of landscape ecology and geography. Energy landscape can be defined as a landscape whose inage and functions have been significantly affected by the energy industry, particulary by the renewable energy development.
 
  Assesment of the impact of wind turbines on landscape character: Implications for landscape planning
Landscape character is a term widely used in connection with landscape conservation, the image of landscapes, and their aesthetic and natural values. Landscape character assessment stems from two approaches – an expert one (based on landscape ecology) and one based on perceptions, that is, in what ways are the given landscape or the construction perceived. Expert evaluation is an essential basis for decision making processes in landscape planning. The quality of landscape character is not only given by objective reality (i.e., biophysical elements of the landscape) but also by subjective perceptions on the part of any observer. Therefore it is almost impossible to separate these two approaches when making a complex assessment of the impact of wind turbines on landscape character.
 
  Biogas
Stanislav Martinát, Petr Dvořák, Bohumil Frantál, Dan Van Der Horst
Institute of Geonics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
 
  Biomass, Remediation, reGeneration
Richard Lord
University of Strathclyde, Glasgow
 
  Brightfields
Bohumil Frantál
Institute of Geonics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
 
  The Why, Where, What And When of an Emerging Issue
Martin J. (Mike) Pasqualetti
Professor, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Global Institute of Sustainability
Arizona State University
 
  Solar Power
Petr Dvořák, Bohumil Frantál, Stanislav Martinát, Dan Van Der Horst, Petr Klusáček
Institute of Geonics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
 
  Attitudes of countries to nuclear energy: Modifications after Fukushima
Kunc, J., Holečková, V., Sedlář, J.
Nuclear energy belongs among the most efficient yet most controversial energy sources. The impacts of the natural disaster and accident in Japanese Fukushima in 2011 have reversed the attitudes of many countries towards nuclear programs. This happened in the period after 2000, which could be characterized as Nuclear Renaissance. The Czech Republic, which has been a long-term advocate of nuclear energy industry and the above-mentioned accident has changed nothing in this attitude, has been mostly affected by the shift of its German neighbor and largest trading partner away from nuclear energy. On the other hand, many developed countries continue their nuclear programs and they do not share the Japanese, German and other countries' fears. It is the aim of this article to introduce and discuss changes in attitudes of selected countries from all over the word towards nuclear energy, especially in connection with the recent tragic events in Fukushima.
 
  Anaerobic digestion plants in rural spaces
Martinat, S., Melníková, V., Dvořák, P., Klusáček, P., Navrátil, J., Van der Horst, D.
Importance of energy generated from renewable sources has been recently constantly increasing. One of sectors where huge development has been experienced is anaerobic digestion plants sector (biogas stations). Its number and installed capacities have dramatically risen in last decade in the Czech Republic (11 installations with 4,19 MW in 2002, 481 installations with 481 MW in 2013). There is no doubt that operation of anaerobic digestion plants, alike other types of renewable sources of energy (wind power plants, solar power plants etc.), yields as alternative to non-renewable fossil sources
plenty of positives. However problems are linked to renewable energy projects too. Such problems are connected to its location, realisation and operation of such facilities that might have important impact on both quality of life, landscape character and spatial relations within municipality. This contribution deals with socio-spatial aspects of renewable sources of energy with focus on anaerobic digestion plants and their acceptance by population on local level. This problem is discussed on example of the Czech Republic and is focused on factors that influence level of acceptance of this type of renewable sources of energy. As case study anaerobic digestion plant in Stonava municipality (Moravian-Silesian Region) was chosen where questionnaire survey with local population was carried out. Also parameters of Stonava anaerobic digestion plant are being analysed from the point view of its inputs, outputs, its use, planning process, incentives and operation of this facility. Attention has been primarily paid to consequences of coexistence of rural population and anaerobic digestion plant.
 
  Global trends and new regional challenges for wind energy development on example of Mexico
Cetkovský, S.
Presented contribution gives an overview about recent trends in the wind energy development. For traditional countries with a big install capacity in wind energy, e.g. Europe, USA, China is typical nowadays limited opportunity for next wind energy investment, which is the reason why many investors and energy utilities are looking for new markets. Mexico seems to be a region with a great potential. Wind energy development could bring an opportunity for peripheral regions. It is no more valid that investment to wind energy is dependent on feed-in tariffs.
 
  Re-use of brownfields for development of solar energy in teh Czech republic
Klusáček, P., Martinát, S., Dvořák, P.
The contribution deals with the main problems and obstacles, which investors have to manage in the Czech Republic, if they plan to create new solar power plants on brownfields. The research activities were conducted in 2012 by means of semi-structured interviews with representatives of companies, which successfully implemented this kind of energetic project on the territory of the Czech Republic. The survey identified that the investors did not received any special state help, subsidies or incentives and that they had to manage the different administrative obstacles created by representatives of the public administration institution, which did not differentiate between solar power plant on brownfields and greenfields. The investors were especially motivated by individual characters of selected brownfields for this kind of projects and in some cases by policies of their companies on creation of the environmentally-friendly image. The contribution concludes with some recommendation how to improve the situation of the studied issue.
 
  New Trends and Challenges for Energy Geographies
Collection of extended abstracts of papers from the Conference & Workshop CONGEO 2013
 
  Driving forces of long-term changes of industrialized landscape (cas study of Hrušov)
Martinát, S., Dvořák, P., Klusáček, P., Kunc, J., Havlíček, M.
In this contribution long-term landscape development and its spatial use and forming is followed on the example of cadastral area Hrušov (part of Slezská Ostrava city district in the city of Ostrava in the Czech Republic). Spatial landscape development of Hrušov has been observed since the beginning of Industrial Revolution in the fi rst half of the 19th century, over dynamic and even precipitous industrialisation during the second half of the 20th century, to nowadays process of deindustrialisation and occurrence of abandoned and neglected areas so called brownfi elds. Th is development is followed by use of historical and contemporary topographical maps, by use and analyses of historical and contemporary aerial pictures and completed by analyses of land use statistics from land registers. Emphasis is stressed on seeking of coherences of main driving socio-economic
forces, factors and analyses of its refl ections in landscape.
 
  Doees rural space benefit from location of anaerobic digestion plants? Perspective of communal administration
Martinát, S., Mintálová, T., Dvořák, P., Navrátil, J., Klusáček, P., Kunc, J.
The importance of energy generated from renewable sources has been increasing recently. One of the sectors where huge development has been experienced is anaerobic digestion plants sector (biogas stations). Its number and installed capacities have dramatically risen in the last decade in the Czech Republic (11 installations with 4.19 MW in 2002, 481 installations with 363.24 MW by the end of 2012 – see spatial distribution – Fig. 1). There is no doubt that operation of anaerobic digestion plants, like other types of renewable sources of energy (wind power plants, solar power plants etc.), yields as an alternative to non-renewable fossil sources plenty of positives. However, renewable energy projects are also connected with problems too. Such problems are linked to the location, realisation and operation of such facilities which might have an important impact on the quality of life, landscape character and spatial relations within community. This study deals with socio-spatial aspects of renewable sources of energy with a focus on anaerobic digestion plants and their acceptance by mayors of local communities.
 
  Divergent trends in agriculture and in sector of anaerobic digestion plants in the Czech republic: Opportunity or threat?
Dvořák, P., Martinát, S., Klusáček, P., Van der Horst, D., Navrátil, J., Kulla, M.
Renewable sources of energies and its support have been recently experiencing wide public debate in the Czech Republic that varies from agreement to complete denial. Nevertheless support from national and EU sources is factor that heavily influenced dynamic development of this sector in last decade. Anaerobic digestion plants are one of options for production of renewable energies that have experienced next to solar plants the most important increase of its installed capacities. This contribution aim to firstly analyse phenomenon of anaerobic digestion plants, its legal, strategic support, supporting financial incentives, individual types of such plants and secondly based on available statistical data analyse spatial distribution of agricultural anaerobic digestion plants. On basis of comparison of data for increasing biogas production and declining agriculture in regions of the Czech Republic basic consequence are deduced. In context of spatial distribution of agricultural anaerobic digestion plants structures of sowing areas and intensities of animal husbandry are shortly discussed. We can conclude that agricultural anaerobic digestion plants have been increasingly influencing structure of sowing areas of agriculture of the Czech Republic and such facilities are in both agricultural sector and wide society perceived more as alternative source of income than contribution to environment protection, limitations for greenhouse gases production and climate change.
 
  Perception of urban renewal: reflexions and coherences of socio-spatial patterns (Brno, Czech republic)
Kunc, J., Navrátil, J., Tonev, P.,Frantál, B., Klusáček, P., Martinát, S., Havlíček, M., Černík, J.
Transformations of economy and society, which had begun in the Eastern and Central European countries in the 1990ies, have also occasioned a profound change of the urban environment. Extensive de-industrialization led not only to the rise of neglected and abandoned objects and industrial estates, but also to an increase of technical, environmental, and above all social deprivations and risks. Brno, a monocentric city, has been very important already in the pre-industrial era. Its abandoned production plants and attendant social and other problems are located mostly in the immediate vicinity of its historical centre (transitional zone or the inner city) which further increases citizens' negative perceptions of these phenomena. On the other hand, abandoned lots adjacent to the city centre often have the greatest potential for new construction. Grounded in theory and research of socio-spatial perception of the local populace, this study presents the revitalization possibilities and risks of exactly this kind of space, which can be viewed as both the largest development area in the city and simultaneously as an area which is abandoned and neglected, with a host of social, technical and other problems.
 
  Renewable energy sources as an alternative to the new usage of brownfields
Kunc, J., Klusáček, P., Martinát, S., Tonev, P.
The subject of brownfields has recently become a widely discussed issue. The number of abandoned and unused facilities in the Czech Republic is quite large, which results in a number of problems. Typical example of a revitalization is a complex demolition or renewable which would give the place in question a new function. (business, administrative, residential, free-time..). Another typical example is a revitalization of the object or the area while keeping some of its original construction and functional features. An example of an “alternative solution“ is to make use of brownfields in a way that would support the development of renewable sources of energy, especially solar and wind power stations, an activity that can be observed in many countries of the world.
 
  Destiny of urban brownfields: Spatial patterns and perceived consequences of post-socialistic deindustralization
Kunc, J., Martinát, S., Tonev, P., Frantál, B.
Compared to Western European or North American countries with developed market economies, the formation and acceptance of brownfields in post-socialist countries was delayed by approximately 30 years. For the Central European and partly Eastern European countries, the fall of the Iron Curtain and the transition after 1989 from a planned and state-controlled economy towards a market economy was unique for its time consistency. Yet, it was also specific for the distinct statuses of main sectors of national economy of individual countries, which got hugely manifested during the formation of spatial and functional connections concerning the problems of brownfields of all types (post-industrial, post-agricultural, post-military etc.). In the Czech Republic, there is a long history of industry; from the middle of the 19th century (the boom of the Industrial Revolution), it was regarded the most industrially developed country of Central and Eastern Europe. The massive deindustrialization of the 1990s caused increased concentrations of brownfield localities, with the local people and public administration becoming more familiar with them, and it also led to initial efforts for their systematic regeneration. The cities of Brno and Ostrava (Czech Republic), as well as other big cities in the Central European area, are typical examples for their finished intensive process of deindustrialization. Yet, regarding their economic preferences, and thus the existence of brownfields, they are highly distinct – in Brno there are more textile and engineering companies together with military and agricultural facilities; in Ostrava abandoned coal mining and metallurgical industry sites prevail. From the perspective of humangeographical methods and approaches, this contribution deals both with the functional-spatial consequences of brownfield existence in urban space, as well as with the results of research focused on the perception of the given issues by the residents of Brno and Ostrava. Also in partnership, research has been conducted on the attitude of the population towards the spread of the Internet and the emergence of new opportunities due to this. 24-hour Internet has led to the emergence of new types of services. For example: you can play gambling 24 hours a day in the best online casino from Nederland CC-TV as well as make use of their ratings. Research and report on this topic, we will publish, as soon as we collect the necessary data and draw conclusions, analyzing them. The research itself tries to demonstrate how the groups of selected respondents perceive and evaluate the brownfield problems from the perspective of their everyday experience.
 
  Spatial consequences of biogas production and agricultural changes in the Czech republic after EU accession
Martinát, Dvořák, Frantál, Klusáček, Kunc, Kulla, Mintálová, Navrátil, van der Horst
Renewable sources of energies and its support have been recently experiencing wide public debate in the Czech Republic that varies from agreement to complete denial. Nevertheless support from national and EU sources is factor that heavily infl uenced dynamic development of this sector in last decade. Anaerobic digestion plants are one of options for production of renewable energies (biogas in this case) that have experienced next to solar plants the most important increase of its installed capacities. This contribution fi rst aims to analyse phenomenon of anaerobic digestion plants, its legal, strategic support, supporting fi nancial incentives, individual types of such plants, and secondly based on available statistical data to analyse spatial distribution of agricultural anaerobic digestion plants. On basis of comparison of data for increasing biogas production and declining agriculture in regions of the Czech Republic basic consequences are deduced. In context of spatial distribution of agricultural anaerobic digestion plants structures of sowing areas and intensities of animal husbandry are shortly discussed. We can conclude that agricultural anaerobic digestion plants have been increasingly infl uencing the structure of sowing areas of agriculture of the Czech Republic and such facilities are in both agricultural sector and wide society perceived more as alternative source of income than
contribution to environment protection, limitations for greenhouse gases production and climate change.
 
  Importance of agricultural anaerobic digestion plants for agriculture and rural Development
Martinát, S., Dvořák, P., Navrátil, J., Klusáček, P., Kulla, M., Mintálová, T., Martinátová, I.
Renewable sources of energies are topic that is still frequently discussed in context of rural development debate. Contribution is trying to identify links between recent agricultural changes in two Central European countries (Czech republic and Slovakia) and recent development of agricultural anaerobic digestion plants as facilities that produce clean energy. Mutual spatial consequences, positives and negatives for rural development are discussed. Potential of agricultural waste after animal husbandry breeding was recalculated by using statistical methods and presented by cartographic outputs.
 
  Renewable Energy and Employment in the Czech Republic
Dvořák, P., Martinát, S.
Development of renewable energy sources is primarily focused on environmental topics such as the climate change, or energy security and source availability. Moreover, it reflects new jobs opportunities and establishment of new economy sectors. The contribution deals with renewable energy sources and their dynamic development, which is documented by increasing number of potential jobs in this sector. The employment progress in main branches of “green economy” of the Czech Republic is analysed, and the collected data with main European trends and the main factors influencing structure of renewable energy sources in the Czech Republic are compared. The main goal of the contribution is to discuss the renewable energy sources benefits for employment and indirectly the Czech Republic competitiveness as well.
 
  New Energy Landscape: Spatial Delimitation Based on the Location of Selected Renewable Sources (Case Study Area Czech Republic)
Nováková, E.
The contribution deals with the definition and the spatial delimitation of the new energy landscape which has been described in the Czech Republic only in theory yet. The primary database was created by means of GIS analyses based on combination three layers with installations producing energy from renewable sources - wind power plants, biogas plants and photovoltaic power plants with production capacity over 5MW. On the basis of this layer were spatially delimited areas of influence of these devices, and thus the theoretical range of the new energy landscape. The result of this study brings new knowledge about spatial distribution of new energy landscapes on the territory of the Czech Republic. The article should be starting point for future scientific researches and discussions, which should help not only to the improvements and modifications of the original methodology, should support the improvement of the decision-making processes associated with spatial planning at the different hierarchical levels (national, regional, local).
 
  Discussion about Energy Savings and Potential Threats of Energy Poverty at the Level of the Residential House (Case Study Lidicka, Brno, Czech Republic)
Klusáček, P., Krejčí, T., Martinát, S.
The contribution deals with issues of energy savings and energy poverty at the level of the residential house. The attention is focused on the process of searching of methods leading to energy savings and furthermore on the question, if some investments can create threats of energy poverty among some groups of actors. The results show that even public financial support for energy savings can cause at some conditions (rejection of financial support) serious financial problems and it can create further economic pressure on groups of actors who are potentially threatened by energy poverty.
 
  Energy tourism: An emerging field of study
Frantál, B., Urbánková, R.
After conceptualizing the interrelationships between energy and tourism, the authors provide a definition of energy tourism as a new niche of industrial tourism, theorize on how it overlaps with other types of special interest tourism, and discuss specifics concerning its forms, locales, and possible societal impacts. Potential directions,
along with research questions, for future research in the field of energy tourism are proposed. Then, the results of an explorative pilot study of energy tourism in the Czech Republic are presented to give a first insight into the proposed questions. Questionnaire surveys completed by tourists and operators of three energy tourism
attractions – so-called Coal Safaris (guided tours through surface coal mines, observing minescapes and mining machinery in full operation), a nuclear power plant information centre, and Dragon Kite Festivals under wind turbines – have focused on exploring the motivations and perceived benefits of energy tourism for organizations; tourists’ motivations for, and experience from, visiting; and any changes in attitudes towards current energy development dilemmas by visitors afterwards.
 
  Have Local Government and Public Expectations of Wind Energy Project Benefits Been Met? Implications for Repowering Schemes
Frantál, B.
Replacing existing wind turbines with new and higher capacity turbines (‘repowering’) is to become a major challenge for planners within the next decade. While the benefits of repowering are evident, it cannot be assumed that the process will proceed automatically and without problems. The acceptance of future developments will be significantly affected by whether expectations of benefits from previous projects have been met, and whether perceived advantages of existing wind farms have outweighed their disadvantages. Therefore, it is important to explore how existing wind farms and their impacts on local development and well-being are assessed. This paper presents the results of a survey with local governments and inhabitants of municipalities in the Czech Republic where wind turbines have been implemented and are in operation. The findings prove that perceived positive effects dominate over negative impacts and that a majority of local authorities and inhabitants are willing to support further development in their backyards. A disruption to local landscape was detected as the main factor behind opposition. However, the significance of visual impact proved to be outweighed by subjective appraisal of economic benefits which is spatially and socially structured. The conclusion presents some implications for designing repowering schemes based on the research.
 
  From Wasted Land to Megawatts: How to Convert Brownfields into Solar Power Plants (the Case of the Czech Republic)
Klusáček, P., Havlíček, M., Dvořák, P., Kunc, J., Martinát, S., Tonev, P.
This article deals with the issue of brownfi eld redevelopment for the needs of solar energy projects from diff erent perspectives. Attention is fi rst paid to a brief characterisation of the data and information available both for brownfi elds and for solar energy projects in the Czech Republic. Then there is description from the most important results of GIS analysis, which (based on a comparison of aerial images from diff erent years) identifi ed the previous uses at the 127 solar power plants with an output of over 1 MWp in the South Moravian Region. The results of the quantitative analyses are accompanied by knowledge from a qualitative survey conducted on selected actors participating in this kind of brownfi eld regeneration for solar energy development. The conclusion contains proposals which could contribute to the more intensive future use of brownfi elds for the needs of solar energy in the Czech Republic (a similar process to what has already successfully been realised in Germany). The research results can be inspiring not only for the Czech republic but also for other EU-member counrties where brownfi elds have not been re-used for the needs of solar energy projects or where brownfi elds have been used in this way only marginally.
 
  Where AD plants wildly grow: The spatio-temporal diffusion of agricultural biogas production in the Czech Republic
Martinat, S., Navratil, J., Dvorak, P., Van der Horst, D., Klusacek, P., Kunc, J., Frantal, B.
There is fundamental agreement about the environmental benefits of renewable energy technologies, but unintended consequences arising from their deployment are frequent sources of conflicts. The Czech Republic has committed itself to supply 13.5% of its electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2020. High state incentives for renewable energies have been provided to achieve this target, however critical questions can be asked about the appropriateness of the design of the supporting frameworkswhich caused a boom in photo-voltaic (PV) installations on agricultural land, as well as a boom in the installation of agricultural anaerobic digestion (AD) plants fuelled by dedicated energy crops. This paper analyses the diffusion of agricultural AD plants in the Czech Republic, focusing especially on locational characteristics in relation to the quality of agricultural land, agricultural and population census data. Statistical analysis of those spatial datasets show that agricultural AD plants are mostly located in less favourable agricultural areas, in regions having recently experienced a reduction in cattle breeding, and in regions with significant increases of sowing areas of green maize. These findings suggests shortcomings in the supporting policy for AD plants in the Czech Republic, resulting in unintended environmental consequences, and missed opportunities to enhance energy self-sufficiency and resilience in the countryside.
 
  It is not right, but we do it. Exploring why and how Czech farmers become renewable energy producers
Frantal, B., Prousek, A.
The paper provides empirical evidence on emerging on-farm renewable energy enterprises in a postcommunist space, namely in the Czech Republic. In addition to exploring farmers' individual motivations to adopt activities related to renewable energy production (biofuel crops growing, biomass production, operation of anaerobic digestion (AD) plants, and implementation of solar and wind energy projects), the study focuses on analysing regional and inter-firm variances in the level and types of adopted activities. A considerable discrepancy between stated personal attitudes of farmers (supporting the traditional view that farmers should only produce food) and actual practice of farms (dealing with renewable energy production for economic reasons) was detected. The extent and types of energy activities proved to be influenced both by geographical conditions and types of farm. While there are significant differences between the studied districts with different climatic and geographic conditions in the type and extent of energy crops and biomass cultivation, the expansion of AD plants and solar power systems was observed the same in both areas. The adoption of energy activities is positively correlated with company size and area of cultivated land, and negatively correlated with the degree of focus on livestock production. While growing biofuel crops is typical for large and medium-sized enterprises, individual farmers and small enterprises with less land area are more likely to produce biomass for combustion and use own grounds and roofs for implementing solar systems. Finally, the most common four types of currently adopted multipath renewable energy enterprises were identified.